HOLISTIC VIEW OF FUTURE OF THE EARTH

ECOSYSTEM

HOLISTIC VIEW OF FUTURE OF THE EARTH

INTRODUCTION

LIFE ON EARTH

Based on World atlas information

https://www.worldatlas.com/articles/the-timeline-of-the-mass-extinction-events-on-earth.html

5 mass extinction events have swept the earth in prehistoric times

Monumental loss of plant and animal species

This stretched from 440 million year ago to 65 million years ago

The causes of these extinctions where volcanic eruptions

Another cause was the impact from asteroid impacts

These forces where the origin of climate change

The sixth, plants and animals species are dying is the one we are in now

Human activities is the cause

GLOBAL COOLING AND WARMING

https://www.worldatlas.com/articles/the-glaciation-timeline.html

Temperatures can reach levels where life on earth is difficult to sustain

Decreasing temperatures cause snow to accumulate en turn into ice

Large areas of ice turn into glaciers, which change the landscape of the earth

These periods is marked by glacial and interglacial periods.

The main impact is fluctuating sea levels below and above current levels

This stretched from 2.4 billion to 300m years ago

The earth is currently coming of a glacial period the Pleistocene

THE PLEISTOCENE

https://www.livescience.com/40311-pleistocene-epoch.html

The Pleistocene lasted from 2.4 million years to 11700 thousand years ago

During the Pleistocene the current position of continents came into place

Enormous sheets of ice and glaciation occurred

The causes are linked to continental drift and the creation of mountains

The orbiting of the earth and the levels of solar activity reaching the earth

There were at least 20 cycles grouped in four classes of glaciation

Periods are cyclic in nature varying between 40 to 100 thousand years

Humans arrived about 2.4 million years ago

HALOCENE or ANTHROPOCENE

https://www.livescience.com/28219-holocene-epoch.html

From the end of the last ice age of the Palaeolithic 27000 years ago to today

The last ice age retreated and vegetation begin to change

Agriculture started in the new temperature era about 8000 years ago

Domestication of cattle, goats and sheep started at the same time

Human population, 170 million, was based on natural ecosystems

From 1000 ad humans began to adapt the ecological constraints

The industrial revolution carried larger populations,1000 million

Habitat destruction has lead to the large increase in species extinction.

We are nearing the end of the HALOCENE

ECOSYSTEM SERVICE

https://wle.cgiar.org/content/what-are-ecosystem-services

Ecosystems are created by the interaction of the biotic and abiotic.

Biotic are plants, animals and microbes and the abiotic air, water and soil.

Humans are a part of ecosystems and depends these services for survival.

There are 5 broad categories of ecosystem service.

    1: Biophysical

    2: Function

    3: Service

    4: Benefits

    5: Value

 

THREATS TO ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

https://www.livescience.com/40311-pleistocene-epoch.html

WWF has surveyed the threats to the natural resources, biodiversity and ecosystems and ecosystems services of the globe.

I have ranked them in importance in terms of my own experience.

The threat level depends on the impact on the ecosystems services of globe

         Infrastructure and land use

         Water resources

         Deforestation

         Climate Change

         Over Fishing

         Wildlife Trade

         Oil and Gas and mining

         Pollution

         Soil Erosion

THE APPROACH TO ENVIRONMENT

https://www.iucn.org/theme/ecosystem-management

Believe that we are a part of the environment

There where many previous cycles of global warming and cooling

During the Halocene the impact of human became more influential

Humans led to the extinction of species and ecosystems became effected

Understand ecosystems and their development.

Understand ecosystem services

          These services are essential for human survival

          These services have human benefit

          These benefits have value

          The value is seen as out natural capital

All of our activities have an impact and threat to these services.

The four most critical threats to these services are.

           Infrastructure and land use changes

           Impact on water resources

           Deforestation

           Climate change

POSITIONAL STATEMENT

https://www.iucn.org/theme/ecosystem-management

Focus on ecosystem services

Request that the full pathway be acknowledged

This should include benefit and value

Focus on the four greatest threats to these services

That all planning recognise the five aspects of ecosystem services

Adapt all resource use to be managed as a service

When purchasing any product request its ecosystem services rating

 ECOSYSTEM PATHWAY